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Electronics is the study of weak current electrical appliance that is operated by controlling the flow of electrons or electrically charged particles in a device such as computers, electronic devices, thermocouples, semiconductor, and so forth. The study of the tools such as this is a branch of physics, while the shape of the design and manufacture of electronic circuits are part of electrical engineering, computer engineering, and science / electronics and instrumentation engineering.
the active component is a component that can work if there is a power supply is used, eg, transistors and diodes. While the passive component is a component that can work without any power supply, for example: resistor, pot, capacitors and inductors of various electronics components above are often used in electronic equipment and in use in their daily lives discussion on the use of electronic components will be discussed below 1.resistor carbon composition resistors consist of a resistive element with a wire or tube-shaped metal cap on both ends. Agency resistor is protected with paint or plastic. Legacy carbon composition resistors have a body that is not insulated, connecting wire wrapped around the tip of the resistive element and then soldered. Resistor finished painted with color coding of the price. A layer of carbon film deposited on a substrate layer of insulator and twisted pieces made to form a long, narrow resistive path. By changing the width of the path cuts, coupled with carbon resistivity (between 9 to 40 µO-cm) can provide a wide resistance [1]. Carbon film resistor provides power rating between 1/6 W to 5 W at 70 ° C. Resistance is available between 1 ohm to 10 MOhm. Carbon film resistor can operate at temperatures between -55 ° C to 155 ° C. It has a maximum working voltage of 200 to 600 volts foil resistors is a resistor with the best precision and stability. One of the important parameters influencing stability is the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). TCR of foil resistors is very low. Ultra-precision foil resistors have a TCR of 0.14ppm / ° C, a tolerance of ± 0.005%, the long-term stability of 25ppm / year, 50ppm / 3 years, the stability of the load of 0.03% / 2000 hours, EMF heat 0.1µvolt / ° C, noise -42dB, voltage coefficient 0.1ppm / V, 0.08µH inductance, capacitance 0.5pF. 2.dioda Diodes are bersaluran two active components (thermionic diode may have a third channel as a heater). Diodes have two active electrodes which cues can flow, and most diodes are used for the direction of its characteristics. Diodes varikap (Variable Capacitor / variable capacitor) is used as a voltage controlled capacitors. Anode Cathode P called the anode side and the side of N-called cathode. Coat of diode like arrows at him from side to side N. Hence P is reminiscent of conventional current flow easily from side to side P N. In the approach of ideal diode, the diode is considered as a closed switch if given a forward bias and a switch is open if given a reverse bias. This means that ideally, the diode behaves like a perfect conductor (zero voltage) if dibias forward and as a perfect insulator (zero flow) when dibias reverse. Almost all electronic devices require direct current source. Rectifier used to obtain direct current from an alternating current. Current or voltage must be completely flat should not be pulsing in order not to cause a distraction for the equipment supplied. Diodes as one of the very popular use of the active components in electronic circuits, due to its simple and its use is widespread. There are several kinds of diode circuit, including: half-wave rectifier (Half-Wafe Rectifier), full-wave rectifier (Full-Wave Rectifier), a series of cutters (Clipper), clamp circuit (clamper) and voltage multiplier (Voltage Multiplier). 3.transistor Transistors are active components that use the flow of electrons as the working principles within the material. A transistor has three areas, namely doped emitter region, the base region and the area called the collector. There are two types of transistor NPN and PNP. Transistor has two connections: one between the emitter and base, and the other between the collector and the base. Therefore, a transistor as two diodes that are opposite each other ie base-emitter diode, or abbreviated to emitter diodes and the collector-base diode, or shortened by the collector diode. Section emitter-base of the transistor is a diode, the diode when the emitter-base dibias forward we expect will see a graph of current versus voltage ordinary diode. When the base-emitter diode voltage is smaller than the potential barriernya, the base current (Ib) to be small. When the voltage exceeds the diode potential barriernya, the base current (Ib) will rise rapidly. Transistor is a device with three terminals as shown by circuit symbols in Figure 1. After the doped semiconductor material, forming a p-type semiconductor material and n. although the manufacturing process is very much, basically a transistor is a three-layer material was a combination of both types, ie PNP and NPN. 1. Transistor PNP PNP type shown in Figure 2.8 (a) and NPN type shown in Figure 2.8 (b). The working principle of the two types are the same, the only difference is its existence in a state of panjaran DC. 4.kapasitor Capacitors are electronic components which can store electric charge.
The structure of a capacitor made of two pieces of metal plates separated by a dielectric material. These dielectric materials are commonly known eg air vacuum, ceramic, glass and others. If both ends of the metal plate is given voltage, the positive charges will accumulate on one leg (electrode) metal and at the same time the negative charges accumulated at the end of the other metal. The positive charge can not flow toward the opposite end of the negative pole and negative charge can not lead to the end of the positive pole, being separated by a dielectric material that is non-conductive. Electric charge is "stored" as long as no conduction at the ends of the legs. In the wild, this phenomenon occurs when the capacitor charge-accumulation of positive and negative charges in the cloud. Capacitors consist of several types, depending on the dielectric material. For more simple can be divided into 3 parts, namely electrostatic capacitors, electrolytic and electrochemical. Electrostatic capacitors electrostatic capacitor is a group of capacitors made with a dielectric material of ceramic, film and mica. Ceramic and mica is a popular material and cheap to make small capacitance capacitors. Quantities available from pF to several UF, which is usually for a series of applications relating to high frequency. Including a group of film dielectrics are construction materials such as polyester (polyethylene terephthalate, also known as Mylar), polystyrene, polyprophylene, polycarbonate, metalized paper and others. , Electrolytic capacitor electrolytic capacitor group composed of the capacitors dielectric materials are metal-oxide layer. Generally capacitor including this group is a polar capacitor with the + and - in the body. Why are these capacitors may have a polarity, is due to the manufacturing process uses electrolysis to form the positive pole and the negative pole anode cathode. It has long been known for some metals such as tantalum, aluminum, magnesium, titanium, niobium, zirconium and zinc (zinc) surface can be oxidized to form metal-oxide layer (oxide film). Oxidation layer is formed through a process of electrolysis, as the gold plating process. Metal electrode is dipped into a solution of electrolit (sodium borate) and given a positive voltage (anode) and the solution given electrolit negative voltage (cathode). Oxygen in the electrolyte solution apart and mengoksidai surface of the metal plate. For example, if used Aluminium, it will form a layer of aluminum-oxide (Al2O3) on its surface. Thus the explanation of electronic components as well Are Some functions of each tool in the daily life of the tools we use these tools, but we did not realize it other than that of each component has a different tipre functions vary according denhgan
a.fungsi resistor Inhibit electric current, voltage divider, Volume control (potentiometer), motor speed regulator (rheostat) b.fungsi diodes can only flow in one direction only. Diode structure is none other than the semiconductor connection P and N. c.fungsi capacitors store the current / voltage electricity. Capacitors for DC current function as Isulator / retaining the electric current, while for AC current function as a conductor / passing an electric current d.transistor function as an amplifier in the analog circuit, digital circuit transistor in articles used for high-speed switch.

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